Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist , but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. The next year, he made another colour film, a version of Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema.
Following India's independence , the period from the late s to the early s is regarded by film historians as the "Golden Age" of Hindi cinema. The s was when the name "Bollywood" was coined,   and when the quintessential conventions of commercial Bollywood films were established. The masala film was pioneered in the early s by filmmaker Nasir Hussain ,  along with screenwriter duo Salim-Javed , pioneering the Bollywood blockbuster format. Profitability of a film studio is crucially dependent on picking the right film projects and involving the right management and creative teams cast, direction, visual design, score, photography, costume, set design, editing, and many additional specialties , but it also depends heavily on choosing the right scale and approach to film promotion , control over receipts through technologies such as digital rights management DRM , sophisticated accounting practices , and management of ancillary revenue streams ; in the extreme, for a major media franchise centered on film, the film might itself be only one large component of many large contributions to total franchise revenue.
Substantial revenues might also derive from licensing efforts and other activities centered around the management of intellectual property ; for this reason, various national film industries are heavily invested in the politics and legal specifics of multilateral trade agreements. Hollywood is a large enough industry to impact America's net balance of trade , offsetting some of the decline of employment in the manufacturing sector of the American economy since the early s; typical of recent economic trends in first world economies, a large number of manufacturing jobs paying moderate wages are offset by a smaller number of creating jobs paying high wages.
As an intellectual property industry, the film industry along with the software industry are central to modern globalization. The film industry differs from software, however, in functioning primarily as a cultural export. English-language culture is the most globalized of all cultures, despite China and India having internal populations to rival the global English footprint. For this reason, Hollywood is the dominant film industry in globalism and trade.
India has both a large film industry and a large, internal English-language culture, though Bollywood has not yet become a center for English-language film exports on a major scale. Films designed for global export tend to be films centered on action rather than dialogue, especially nuanced dialogue which is not fully available to people speaking English as a second language ESL.
Unusually, Japanese Anime has a global audience, though these are sometimes dubbed into English by star-power Hollywood voice actors. On the creative side, picking the right projects has traditionally been regarded as high risk. Increasingly the risk is being mitigated with approaches drawn from advanced data analytics , such as using models derived from machine learning sometimes glorified as AI to estimate the future revenue of a proposed project.
The following is a list of the top 15 countries by the number of feature films fiction, animation and documentary produced, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics , unless otherwise noted. The following countries are the largest box office markets in terms of the number of tickets sold annually, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Cinema of the United States. See also: Cinema of China. Further information: Cinema of the United Kingdom. Further information: Cinema of France. Further information: Cinema of India. See also: Cinema of Nigeria. See also: Cinema of Egypt. See also: Cinema of Iran. Main article: Cinema of Japan. See also: Cinema of Pakistan and Lollywood. See also: Cinema of Bangladesh and Dhallywood. See also: Cinema of Indonesia.
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Hamid Naficy | Northwestern School of Communication
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Retrieved 20 March Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 29 November In addition to financing, the Fund offers filmmakers tailor-made consultancies and training programs to support them in their creative and production process.
Additionally, filmmakers are invited to participate in the different industry events that IDFA has to offer, and broaden their international network and knowledge of the documentary industry. Read more about how to submit your project in our different application categories. A list of all other funds and resources for documentary makers seeking support for their projects.
Middle Eastern & North African Cinema & Film: Reference & Backgound Resources
IDFA Homepage. Twenty years ago, virtually every city in America had a commercial movie theater devoted to foreign language films and thousands of film societies exposed young people throughout the United States to foreign language film in schools and universities. Now most cities are lucky to get a one-week "foreign film festival" to spotlight this work — and there are fewer than two dozen film societies still in operation devoted to films with subtitles. Fewer foreign language films then enter the distribution system, and so on. The Global Lens Film Series ensures that the best of emerging world cinema is available on screens throughout the United States, with a particular focus on films in languages other than English.