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The benefits that make it worth it. Follow the Rules. The struggle is real, but worth it. Written by Jamie Webber on December 22, Then I Did the Whole What Are Alternatives to the Whole30 Diet? Modules communicate through message passing, where messages may carry arbitrary data structures. Modules can pass messages along predefined paths via gates and connections, or directly to their destination; the latter is useful for wireless simulations, for example.
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Modules at the lowest level of the module hierarchy are called simple modules, and they encapsulate model behavior. Graphical, animating user interfaces are highly useful for demonstration and debugging purposes, and command-line user interfaces are best for batch execution. The simulator as well as user interfaces and tools are highly portable. The parallel simulation algorithm can easily be extended, or new ones can be plugged in.
Models do not need any special instrumentation to be run in parallel -- it is just a matter of configuration. The second group of chapters,  ,  and  are the programming guide. The chapters  and  explain how to customize the network graphics and how to write NED source code comments from which documentation can be generated. Chapter  is devoted to the support of distributed execution. The appendices provide a reference on the NED language, configuration options, file formats, and other details. Simple modules can be grouped into compound modules and so forth; the number of hierarchy levels is unlimited.
Messages can be sent either via connections that span modules or directly to other modules.
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The concept of simple and compound modules is similar to DEVS atomic and coupled models. In Fig. Arrows connecting small boxes represent connections and gates. Figure: Simple and compound modules.
Figure: The Node compound module. Figure: a simple module output gate, b compound module output gate, c simple module input gate, d compound module input gate. Figure: cObject is the base class for most of the simulation library. Figure: cQueue : insertion and removal. The numbers in boxes represent the observation count values. Figure: Density estimation from the k-split cell tree. Figure: cFigure class hierarchy. For example, the unit property of parameters is not allowed to be overridden, and display is merged with special although similar rules see Chapter .
In NED, a type may only extend extends keyword an element of the same component type: a simple module may extend a simple module, a channel may extend a channel, a module interface may extend a module interface, and so on. Single inheritance is supported for modules and channels, and multiple inheritance is supported for module interfaces and channel interfaces. A network is a shorthand for a compound module with the isNetwork property set, so the same rules apply to it as to compound modules.
However, a simple or compound module type may implement like keyword several module interfaces; likewise, a channel type may implement several channel interfaces. Inheritance may: add new properties, parameters, gates, inner types, submodules, connections, as long as names do not conflict with inherited names modify inherited properties, and properties of inherited parameters and gates it may not modify inherited submodules, connections and inner types For details and examples, see the corresponding sections of this chapter simple modules [3. When a project grows, however, it sooner or later becomes necessary to introduce a directory structure, and sort the NED files into them.
Packages are also useful for reducing name conflicts, because names can be qualified with the package name. If you are familiar with Java, you'll find little surprise in this section. The simulation kernel will traverse the whole directory tree, and load all NED files from every directory. Directories in a NED source tree correspond to packages.
The package name has to be explicitly declared at the top of the NED files as well, like this: package a. The only exception is the root package. By convention, package names are all lowercase, and begin with either the project name myproject , or the reversed domain name plus the project name org. The latter convention would cause the directory tree to begin with a few levels of empty directories, but this can be eliminated with a toplevel package. NED files called package. For example, comments in package. Also, a namespace property in a package.
The toplevel package. For example, given a project where all NED types are under the org. This will cause a directory foo under the root to be interpreted as package org. Only the root package. The name that includes the package name a. Queue for a Queue module in the a. Simple names alone are not enough to unambiguously identify a type. Here is how one can refer to an existing type: By fully qualified name. This is often cumbersome though, as names tend to be too long; Import the type, then the simple name will be enough; If the type is in the same package, then it doesn't need to be imported; it can be referred to by simple name Types can be imported with the import keyword by either fully qualified name, or by a wildcard pattern.
So, any of the following lines can be used to import a type called inet. RoutingTable : import inet. RoutingTable; import inet. RoutingTable; If an import explicitly names a type with its exact fully qualified name, then that type must exist, otherwise it is an error. Imports containing wildcards are more permissive, it is allowed for them not to match any existing NED type although that might generate a warning.
Inner types may not be referred to outside their enclosing types, so they cannot be imported either. Imports are not much use here: at the time of writing the NED file it is not yet known what NED types will be suitable for being "plugged in" there, so they cannot be imported in advance. There is no problem with fully qualified names, but simple names need to be resolved differently.
What NED does is this: it determines which interface the module or channel type must implement i. There must be exactly one such type, which is then used. If there is none or there are more than one, it will be reported as an error. RandomWalk , inet. Also suppose that there is a type called inet. MassMobility but it does not implement the interface. MassMobility will be selected; the other MassMobility doesn't interfere. Those files are said to be in the default package.
It is assumed that nothing i. This is in contrast to continuous systems where state changes are continuous. Systems that can be viewed as discrete event systems can be modeled using discrete event simulation, DES. For example, computer networks are usually viewed as discrete event systems. Some of the events are: start of a packet transmission end of a packet transmission expiry of a retransmission timeout This implies that between two events such as start of a packet transmission and end of a packet transmission , nothing interesting happens.
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That is, the packet's state remains being transmitted. If we were interested in the transmission of individual bits, we would have included something like start of bit transmission and end of bit transmission among our events. Time within the model is often called simulation time , model time or virtual time as opposed to real time or CPU time which refer to how long the simulation program has been running and how much CPU time it has consumed.
The initialization step usually builds the data structures representing the simulation model, calls any user-defined initialization code, and inserts initial events into the FES to ensure that the simulation can start. Initialization strategies can differ considerably from one simulator to another. The subsequent loop consumes events from the FES and processes them. Events are processed in strict timestamp order to maintain causality, that is, to ensure that no current event may have an effect on earlier events. Processing an event involves calls to user-supplied code. The user code may also remove events from the FES, for example when canceling timeouts.
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The simulation stops when there are no events left this rarely happens in practice , or when it isn't necessary for the simulation to run further because the model time or the CPU time has reached a given limit, or because the statistics have reached the desired accuracy.
At this time, before the program exits, the user will typically want to record statistics into output files. Note that there is a class called cEvent that cMessage subclasses from, but it is only used internal to the simulation kernel. Events are consumed from the FES in arrival time order, to maintain causality. More precisely, given two messages, the following rules apply: The message with the earlier arrival time is executed first.
If arrival times are equal, the one with the higher scheduling priority smaller numeric value is executed first. Scheduling priority is a user-assigned integer attribute of messages. SimTime class stores simulation time in a bit integer, using decimal fixed-point representation. The resolution is controlled by the scale exponent global configuration variable; that is, SimTime instances have the same resolution. The exponent can be chosen between attosecond resolution and 0 seconds. Some exponents with the ranges they provide are shown in the following table.
Regards the input values and their timestamps as a step function sample-hold style , and computes and outputs its time average integral divided by duration. Expects cPacket pointers as value, and outputs the bit length for each received one. Non- cPacket values are ignored. Expects cPacket pointers as value, and outputs the byte length for each received one. For each value, computes the sum of values received so far, divides it by the duration, and outputs the result. Removes repeated values, i. Records the count of the input values into an output scalar; functionally equivalent to last count.
Records the sum of the input values into an output scalar or zero if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last sum. Records the minimum of the input values into an output scalar or positive infinity if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last min. Records the maximum of the input values into an output scalar or negative infinity if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last max.
Records the mean of the input values into an output scalar or NaN if there was none ; functionally equivalent to last mean. Regards the input values with their timestamps as a step function sample-hold style , and records the time average of the input values into an output scalar; functionally equivalent to last timeavg.
Computes basic statistics count, mean, std.