Some web application servers provide support for hot-swapping applications, but the principle is the same. Although this works, users of your application are likely to encounter downtime because the application will be unavailable for a short period of time. Over the years, we've created a number of techniques to deal with this issue, one of the most popular being Blue-Green Deployments , where a physical or virtual router is used to switch traffic from one running instance of your application to another.
Although this might sound like an advanced technique, tools like Cloud Foundry make this feasible for teams of any size to achieve. The build and deployment process is fully automated, triggered by TeamCity running on an Amazon EC2 server waiting for commits to the git repository. In summary, this build and deployment process performs the following steps:.
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The Cloud Foundry command line interface is installed on the build server, and the build script simply uses the "cf push" command to push the. WAR files. The "--no-start" flag is used so that the application is pushed, but not started, and this is done so that application environment variables e. Once the configuration has been set, the "cf scale" command is used to set the desired number of instances and RAM, before actually starting the application. At this point, the applications are running but only accessible using a temporary URL that includes the build number e.
With the applications running, the build script can now run a series of end-to-end tests a mixture of "smoke tests" and system tests , in order to verify that the new versions of the applications are running as expected. If the end-to-end tests pass, the next step is to make these new versions of the applications live. This involves using the Cloud Foundry command line interface to map the live URL to the new versions of the applications "cf map-route" , while removing it from the old versions "cf unmap-route".
This process makes use of the Cloud Foundry router, which allows you to configure the URLs that are used to access running applications. If everything is successful, finally, the previous versions of the applications are deleted. The whole build process takes less than 10 minutes. Here is some more information about how to do Blue-Green Deployments if you're interested. The process of switching the live URLs to the new versions of the applications is what allows a zero-downtime deployment.
The small caveat here is that any information that only resides in the memory space of the old versions of the applications is lost, of course. As an example, if HTTP session state is only stored in memory, users will be signed out once their requests are directed to a new instance of Apache Tomcat. There are a number of ways to deal with this problem including session replication , but Structurizr makes use of Spring Session in conjunction with Redis, to instead store HTTP session information outside of the Apache Tomcat server instances, so that session information is retained during the deployment process.
And that's it In part 5 I'll briefly discuss how to customise the deployment environment using Java buildpacks. Comments or questions? Tweet me at simonbrown. I want to start part 3 by saying that I really do like and recommend Pivotal Web Services and Cloud Foundry as a simple and robust way to deploy Java applications. I've been running Structurizr on Pivotal Web Services for over 3 years now and I've had very few issues with the core platform. The marketplace services, on the other, are a different story.
In addition to providing a deployment platform to run your code, most of the Platform as a Service providers Pivotal Web Services, Heroku, Azure, etc provide a collection of "marketplace services". These are essentially add-on services that give you easy access to databases, messaging providers, monitoring tools, etc. Let's imagine that you're building a Java web application and you'd like to store data in a MySQL database. You have a few options.
One option is to build your own database server somewhere like Amazon AWS. Of course, you need to have the skills to do this and, given that part 1 was all about the benefits of PaaS over building your own infrastructure, the DIY approach is not necessarily appealing for everybody. All you need to do is create a subscription to ClearDB through the marketplace there is a free plan , connect to the database and create your schema.
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That's it. Most of the operational aspects of the MySQL database are taken care of; including backups and replication. To connect your Java application to ClearDB, again, you have some options. The first is to place the database endpoint URL, username and password in configuration, like you might normally do. The other option is to use the Cloud Foundry command line interface to issue a "cf bind" command to bind your ClearDB database instance to your application instance s , and use Cloud Foundry's auto-reconfiguration feature.
When you're getting started, this is a fantastic feature as it's one less thing to worry about. It also means that you don't need to update URLs, usernames and passwords if they change. I used this approach for a couple of years and, if you look at the Structurizr changelog , you can see the build number isn't far off Each build number represents a separate automated deployment to Pivotal Web Services. This is to echo the explorative approach taken by all of the illustrators featured in the book — looking at new ideas and ways to realise concepts within contemporary illustration.
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The Furniture of Carlo Mollino presents for the first time Mollino's complete furniture and interior design. Including drawings and archival photographs, it represents the most comprehensive record of this part of Mollino's production. Realized in collaboration with the Museo Casa Mollino and written by the Museum's curators Napoleone Ferrari and Fulvio Ferrari, this monograph emphasizes the contemporary significance of Mollino's groundbreaking oeuvre. This abundantly illustrated monograph tells the story of modern furniture in Czechoslovakia and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, from the first half of the nineteenth century the Biedermeier period to the late twentieth century.
The book offers a comprehensive overview of the modern history of furniture in this region against the backdrop of significant developments in the field worldwide. Particular attention is devoted to the most distinguished artists-designers, as well as to the stories of furniture manufacturers and institutions. This too has no connection with Orosius apart from a possible idea of symbolising the Christian intention of the Historia adversum paganos. There remain however two MS requiring somewhat more careful. It is a vellum MS of the early thirteenth or late twelfth century in two columns of 37 to 39 lines.
The size of the folio is x mm. Ruled in lead point. Quire numbers have been added in very pale ink in modern arabic numerals at the foot of the first folio of each quire. The present quires 1 and 2 are a later addition in a hand of the thirteenth century and contain a list of contents of the seven books of Orosius which follow. The present quire 1 contains only fol. The present quire 2 contains fols. The page is otherwise blank. The MS had a modern pagination in ink added evidently with the ,Bibliotheca Swaniana' title page which refers to this pagination. There is also a foliation in pencil to which reference is here made.
Numerous small capitals in alternating red and green. The MS proper begins with the present quire 3. There are traces of original quire numbers at the foot of the verso of the last folio of some of the quires, notably the present quire 5 which is clearly numbered III on fol. The collation of the MS runs, using the present quire numbering — I1, 2 s, 3 a seven with an unnumbered blank replacing a lost first folio, in 8's, 9 a seven, in eights, 13 a ten, 14 an eight, 15 a three. The text of Orosius begins on fol.
The lost first folio of the quire, which was no doubt decorated, would contain the lost two pages of Zange- meister's text. There are numerous capitals throughout the text in red, blue and green and sometimes in two or even three of these colours. There are also more elaborate capitals with foliate ornament at the beginning of each of books II to VII ff.
Ill fol. Cum post fabricam ornatum- que mundi A small historiated capital occurs on fol. The text of Orosius ends fol. Dares ends fol. Liber Constantini de melancholia. Et si ego Constantinus Africanus montis Cassinensis Doctrina Magistri Petri Abaelardi. Astralabi fili uite dulcedo paterne Nos pre- cepta damus pauca loqui melius. In the latter part of the MS the scribe was evidently pressed for space and some pages of the Dares are written in columns of up to sixty lines. The Constantinus and Abelard tracts are written 41 lines to the column. There appears to be no indication of the former history of the MS before it reached the Burney collection.
We turn to the illustrations of this MS. We may dismiss as marginal scribbles a grotesque sphinx-like animal in the lower margin of fol. Both are apparently by the same hand in very faint pencil and have no relation to the accompanying text. There remain a few genuine illustrations, the work of the illuminator responsible for the large capitals mentioned above. These are as follows :. A large historiated capital D for Dixisse at beginning of book IV. This contains a picture of a king, crowned and in full armour on horseback, with lance and kite-chaped shield.
This may be intended to represent Pyrrhus of Epirus whose wars with the Romans are recounted in the early part of Book IV. That the illuminator was particularly interested in the Pyrrhic war is shown by :. A picture of one of Pyrrhus' battle elephants whose first appearance wrought such consternation in the Roman ranks.
The animal has the usual castle-howdah full of armed men with conical helms and kite-shaped shields and the mahout is placed in a sort of turret at the side, a most unusual Unlike the illustrator of the Vatican MS, the maker of this picture was clearly well informed as to the appearance of the elephant. This picture occurs opposite IV. Between the columns at the foot of the page a crested serpent or dragon in red. A pen drawing, possibly by a later hand, of a human monster with four legs, four arms and four eyes.
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An historiated capital E with Orosius as a tonsured priest below offering his book to Augustine as a mitred bishop, above. This is the of the epilogue of Orosius to Augustine : 'Explicui adiuuante Christo Again we are struck by the rather insignificant episodes, apart from the Pyrrhic war, selected for illustration, though in this case, with the possible exception of the monster on fol.
They appear to have been a labour of love on his part, and in view of their extremely small number can hardly have been.
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They bear no resemblance to the drawings in the Vatican MS of the Pyrrhic War where alone they coincide in subject. There remains a MS in Stuttgart with an elaborate frontispiece and several marginal pen-drawings. This is Stuttgart Cod. It is described 23 as a vellum MS of the twelfth century with folios in two columns, formerly in the monastery of Zwiefalten where it was number in the library. We can add that it has 36 lines to a column. Adam cum esset annorum fol. In the body of the letter we have the animals entering Noah's ark, inscribed , Arena Noe', with Noah and his family looking on.
All inscriptions are in red and the letter is in red, green blue and pale brown in a South German, rather linear style of the twelfth century. Although accompanied by the inscription Jncipit cronica Orosii hystoriographi' this picture refers only to the brief chronograph and has no connection with the text of Orosius itself, which, apart from a brief reference to the deluge in which Noah's name is omitted, I. Even in the chronograph there is a mention of Adam only as father of Seth and of Noah as building the ark.
Neither the labours of Adam and Eve not the drunkenness of Noah appear, but of course these episodes were always associated in medieval Genesis illustration and their absence from the text of the Chronograph and Orosius would in no way deter the illuminator from including them. There are a few decorated capitals by the same hand in the text, an I with intertwined serpents and an E with foliate ornament on fol.
None of these have any connection with the text. In addition to these decorations certain pages have marginal pen-drawings. Nearly all are used in some way to frame brief marginalia, which, together with numerous interlinear glosses, often of poor latinity, were added to the text by a later hand during the later twelfth century. That these drawings were the work of the glossator himself, is shown by the existence of such a frame without the gloss on fol. Some of them have an at least partially illustrative function. They occur as follows :.
A king crowned sceptre, and with below his feet two intertwined branches issuing from a grotesque head. Between the branches is inscribed this note. Immensus fluvius qui tot alueos vel rigare potuit. The king is therefore presumably intended for Cyrus. Left margin below. Mire latitudines fornicum portarum per quas fluebat. This appears to be a reference to the river Euphrates. There is however no reference to arches through which it flowed in the long description of Babylon which follows. A running horse, intended no doubt for that lost by Cyrus in the river Gyndus.
An arch containing the note : cemento naturali cuius ibi copia scaturit quod mixtum lateri petra duri sunt. The reference is to the bitumen with which the walls of Babylon were built. Upper margin, right. A decorative frame with no illustrative function a note : Aliter uice amnis circumfluit a fonte. Another reference presumably to the Gyndus or to the Euphrates.
A king, drawing a sword, standing in a round- arched doorway. There is no note with this picture. Right margin below. Quamuis illi Athenienses fuerint tamen nee eos Lacedemonius interesse liquet. The snake has no illustrative function.
A male figure holding up a scroll with note : Quasi dixissef etiam ne ego hune modum barbaries non habet, uel sic ideo scripsi ne ego si iterum eodem modo. The figure seems to have no illustrative function. Right margin, foot. A circle and an oblong joined by a double hand. The circle contains : Subsidia sunt que seorsum posita in angustiis prelio immittuntur. Pyrrhus elephantos ex subsidiis iussit induci. The leaf is purely decorative. A man naked but for a pair of drawers holds up a circle containing the words : Ecc prima cause belli punici. Carthaginiensium auxilia per legatos poscunt The figure is purely decorative.
A long six-footed winged dragon in the writhings of the body and tail of which four notes are contained. Quando dictum est peribitis gentes de terra illius. Qua nee a Gothis irrumpendo parcentibus. Ut illi equiti romano qui uiuus per hiatum terre in infernum desiliit, uel etiam mario, Sille, Iulio quoque et ceteris. On the body of the dragon and continued on an oblong placard held in its mouth. There is no symbol relating this to any passage in the text nor is it easy to see to what it is intended to refer.
The dragon itself is purely decorative. Right margin, four notes reading from top. In a circle decorated with peacock-feather eyes. Ut illis uictis impetum repentinum in romanos faceret. Between the claws of a lobster. In the circle made by the bend of the neck of a long-necked bird eating a twig. The frames in which are set these four notes are purely decorative. Set sideways, the head of a man holding two circles in which no notes have been inscribed. The annotator had however got so far as inserting the symbols which were to relate notes to text. Upper margin. In a rhomboidal frame : Montem amplissimum qui hispaniam diuidit a Gallis.
Lower margin : In an oblong frame : Rasa in capite ut a negociatoribus primo aspectu scirentur esse uenales. XXX milia hominum captiuorum uendidit, Male figure supporting an oblong placard reading : Velociter equos ascendendo et descendendo. A small hunch-backed figure supporting a circle the words : Ut quasi cote ea utentes acutius inciderent.
We thus see that except for Cyrus and his horse on Fol. Our examination of the few illustrated MSS of Orosius' apologetic history which have survived leads us to no very startling conclusion.
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We can only say that no surviving evidence points to there having existed, either in late antiquity or in the early Middle Ages, anything in the nature of a regular illustrative cycle for Orosius; and that the most that was ever done in the way of illustrating his book was that readers with an artistic bent occasionally gave way to a temptation to fill the margins of their copies with small unpretentious pictures illustrative of the text.
We can add that these amateur illustrators appear in every case to have worked independantly of one another from the text before them, and that there is no evidence that any model from any other source such as the Alexander Romance was laid under contribution. As I pointed out at the beginning of this study, Orosius was a work of Christian apologetic which in due course came to be used as an historical text book, and this was about as much illustration as a work of that nature was likely to receive in the Middle Ages.
Burkbeck College University of London. All references to the latin text in this study are to this edition. A generally satisfactory English translation is I. Seven books of history against the pagans. New York, Columbia Univ. Press This contains a of Orosius on pp. It is probably approximately correct as I have personally traced over MSS. Paris XLI, a twelfth century Genesis with scholia of the fathers, has the same signature Ioannis Gaddi at the top of f.
Bandini, Bibliotheca Leopoldina Laurentiana Vol. II, col. See above p. They will however be described in their present order in the MS. In eo preolio See above pp. It appears in the Octateuchs and in the Joshua Rotulus. See K. The Joshua Roll. Illustrations in Roll and Codex, pp. Nectanebus in his palace. Journal of Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, vol. XV pp. Catalogus codicum latinorum Bibliothecae Mediceo-Laurentianae, vol. Florence Harley , an Italian MS of the fifteenth century with a bust of the author as a priest in a capital P.
Schick for this information and for tracings of the drawings in question.
Paris , vol. New series, vol. Stuttgart As I have been unable to examine this MS these notes are based on photographs and a colour reproduction of f. Helmut Kampf whom I than for this and other assistance. II, pp. Gotha Illustrated manuscripts of Orosius [article] D. Scholars were too poor for such luxuries unless they happened to hold high office in the church, when they usually to expend their revenue on the illumination of bibles and liturgical texts, rather than on that of works profane or, like Orosius, semi-profane 1 35 D. ROSS learning.
The Vatican Orosius The most interesting illustrated Orosius that has so far come to light is that contained in MS Vaticanus latinus Orsini was in correspondence with members of the Gaddi family in and and 3 37 D. ROSS seems to have given them various classical marbles, etc. The pictures — The interest of this MS lies mainly in its illustrations and their description will occupy the greater part of this study.
The illustrations are small marginal pendrawings made with a very fine pen in an ink similar to that of the text, which, owing to the fineness 5 39 D. ROSS of the lines, here appears very pale brown in shade. Brief captions or labels in a very small Beneventan minuscule occur frequently [PL 11], 11 F.
Battle scene, inscribed ,Samnitis', 7 41 D. Battle between Alexander, left, inscribed 'Alexander 43 D. ROSS and round bottom. These are : 1. Burial of Darius. The illustrations — The text is illustrated on thirty-eight of its pages with very small unframed pictures in colour in the margins or between the columns. A cock gallus ; a misunderstanding of the burial 11 47 D. ROSS appears that he may have been a reader with an artistic bent who illustrated certain episodes for his own amusement, working from the text as he went along. Other Orosius mss with pictures Although the Vatican and Laurentian MSS are the only ones of Orosius which have so far come to light with anything like a full cycle of illustrations, a few others exist with a little sporadic illustration, and they must now be considered.
To this class belong the following : 1. ROSS On fol. These are as follows : 1. That the illuminator was particularly interested in the Pyrrhic war is shown by : 2. In addition to these decorations certain pages have marginal pen-drawings 15 53 D. ROSS of a rather curious type. They occur as follows : F. Conclusion Our examination of the few illustrated MSS of Orosius' apologetic history which have survived leads us to no very startling conclusion.
Ross Burkbeck College University of London ]